From Cargo Handbook - the world's largest cargo transport guidelines website
Infobox on Snapdragon
Example of Snapdragon
Origin -
Stowage factor (in m3/t) -
Humidity / moisture -
Ventilation -
Risk factors See text


Description / Shipment / Storage / Risk factors

Scientific Name and Introduction

Antirrhinum majus cvs. The many pastel flower colours of the tall spikes of snapdragons allow florists and consumers innumerable design options. Snapdragons used to be considered very sensitive to ethylene, but the newer cultivars have been selected for ethylene resistance, and ethylene normally causes a problem only when present in moderate concentrations. Flower drop (shattering) occurs in 24 hours if ethylene is present in air at ≥ 0,5 ppm. Antirrhinum is Greek for “like” and “nose” in reference to the flower shape.

Quality Characteristics and Criteria

For local sales, snapdragons are typically harvested when flowers on the lower ½ to ⅔ of the spike are open. A less mature stage is desirable for shipping and/or short term storage. Purchase those cultivars that are less sensitive to ethylene. At least two to five florets per stem should be open. Avoid flowers with excessive stem bending and yellowing foliage, which indicate poor temperature management after harvest.

Grading and Bunching

Snapdragons are bunched in groups of 10 by colour. Flowers must have straight stems and healthy foliage. Foliage on the lower ⅓ of the stem should be removed.

Ethylene Sensitivity

Most snapdragon cultivars are sensitive to ethylene. Older flowers on a stem are more susceptible to ethylene than younger ones. However, some cultivars are naturally ethylene resistant and, therefore, respond little to treatment with 1-MCP or STS.


Treatment with 1-MCP or pulsing with STS protects snapdragon flowers from ethylene-induced shattering. Snapdragons also benefit from an overnight pulse at 20ºC with a preservative fortified with 7% sucrose. Upper flowers on spikes treated in this way open with better colour than control flowers. Snapdragons are best stored with only a few flowers open, but this often results in poor development of the flowers on the spike and fading of colour at the tip. Spikes cut with only one or two flowers open should be opened in a solution containing 300 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC) and 1,5% sucrose. This bud-opening solution can also be used as a vase solution. Addition of 25 ppm of the growth regulator n-dimethylamino succinamic acid (Alar, B-nine) increases flower quality and also counteracts the excess spike length that sometimes results from placing snapdragons in 8-HQC and sucrose. Pulse treatments with naphthylpthalamic acid or Ca antagonists can reduce geotropic curvature that results from horizontal storage at warmer temperatures.

Storage Conditions

Snapdragons can be stored at 0°C to 1ºC for 7 to 10 days if they are wrapped in polyethylene film to retard moisture loss. Snapdragons have been satisfactorily stored for up to 3 weeks at -1ºC. For long-term storage, bud-harvested flowers should be used. Bud-harvested flowers are ones in which the bottom two or three florets have coloured petals emerging about one-quarter of an inch above the calyx. Snapdragons are relatively sensitive to ethylene gas. Flowers on harvested spikes assume a permanent, upward bend, thus reducing quality, if held at warmer temperatures for even a short time in a non-vertical position. Snapdragons should always be stored and shipped upright in snapdragon hampers at low temperatures. Pretreatment with naphthyphthalamic acid can overcome this bending, but it is not registered for this purpose.


Snapdragons are usually packed upright in hampers or Proconas, which reduce the likelihood of geotropic bending. If flowers are properly pre-cooled and transported at optimal temperature (0° to 1ºC) they can be packed in a normal horizontal flower box.

Special Considerations

Do not remove more leaves than necessary, as this can stimulate flower fall. Do not use any home brews, ex, anti-freeze, as replacements for preservative solutions. The many pastel flower colours allow florists and consumers innumerable options. The flower can be made to snap shut after separating and releasing the two-lipped corolla (fused petals). When grown as a garden plant, treat them as an annual although many will respond as a perennial, depending on location and cultivar.

Sources used
BMT Consolidated Manual on (Dutch) Flower Bulbs, cut flowers/greens and potted plants.